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13 May, 2022 40 Views Author: Saeed, Hamza

How you can use light source in an integrating sphere to get product reliability results

Integrating sphere

The Ulbricht sphere is also known as the integrating sphere. Richard Ulbricht, a German engineer, inspired the Ulbricht sphere. To determine the best lighting strategy, he took photometric measurements. It occurred while preparing the electrical and lighting systems for a train station. He established that the amount of light measured on the opposite sphere wall from the light source is proportional to the amount of light flow overall. Its spherical shape inspired its name. Sphere lighting systems employ spheres to measure light sources such as lamps and luminaires.

Integrating sphere

High Precision Spectroradiometer Integrating Sphere System LPCE-2(LMS-9000)

Typically, light-scattering, or refracting samples are examined using a spherical illumination system, such as Optical lenses. The test method determines the transmission of lenses that condense light after passing through them. When a conventional detector detects light, it impacts the light-sensitive surface of the detector. This brings the baseline correction to a close (100 percent alignment). Light comes from the detector’s light-sensitive surface after irradiating the sample. As a result, precise measurement is unattainable.

A distributed sample is not counted. All measurement lights are aimed at the light-sensitive surface of the detector. When using an integrating sphere to measure a sample, the light after diffusion within the sphere is measured during baseline correction and sample measurement.

Uniform Light Source Sphere

By infusing lighting from an external source into the sphere, a general-purpose sphere can be designed as a rudimentary uniform light source. An illuminator, a detector, and a power meter or radiometer are required for the setup. Because the unused fourth port with a port plug may interfere with output uniformity, a three-port sphere is preferable over a four-port sphere. The light source is connected to the 90-degree port, and the detector is attached to the north pole. The uniform illumination output is provided via the huge 0-degree port.

The detector attached to the power meter or radiometer offers an exact indicator of the sphere illumination. So long as the detector is not saturated, the output will vary linearly with the power reading.

Sphere Diameters

Smaller diameter, lower cost spheres must have smaller utility ports and extremely high throughput. The throughput is increased to the point that filters or fiber optic cables are required to prevent detector saturation, because of dependency on light source. The port percentage of the smaller spheres, on the other hand, is extremely high. As a result, measurement data provided by a tiny integrating sphere will be less accurate than data generated by the same application utilizing a large sphere.

The larger integrating sphere has lower throughput than the smaller spheres and higher optical attenuation, resulting in a higher signal-to-noise ratio. These spheres are more flexible, but they are also more expensive to produce.

Sphere Materials

The low-cost barium sulphate coated GPS integrating spheres are made of two aluminium hemispheres. An anodized flange cover with screws connects the hemispheres. Although the hemispherical reflectance of barium sulphate falls off slightly above 1850 nm, the useful spectral range is 350 – 2400 nm. This sort of sphere is suitable for most visible and near-infrared radiation monitoring applications.

Diffuse gold coating is an electrochemically plated, diffuse gold-metallic coating with a high reflectivity in the near-infrared and infrared wavelength ranges of 0.7 to 20m. The gold spheres are built in the same way as the barium sulphate spheres, with the exception that the external flat surface and port frames are also gold-plated. Infrared laser applications benefit from the use of a gold GPS. Unlike a barium sulphate coating, which loses reflectivity at elevated temperatures, diffuse gold is stable at temperatures well above 100 degrees Celsius.

The diffuse reflectance of PTFE material is quite high spanning the 250 – 2500 nm spectral region, with reflectance more than 99 percent between 400 nm and 1500 nm. Although PTFE’s temperature stability is appropriate for laser applications, its high reflectivity is best suited for low-level light applications. Another notable feature of PTFE spheres is their dependability: the material does not deteriorate with age and can be cleaned without compromising the material’s mechanical integrity.

The 7 mm thickness of the reflecting material along the inside sphere wall of a PTFE integrating sphere is readily visible through a sphere port. A PTFE GPS is made up of two machined hemispheres that fit together to form an internal sphere hollow and are held together by an aluminium outer shell. Because of the machining and assembly required, a PTFE sphere is more expensive than a barium sulphate GPS. Because the walls are thick, the size possibilities for the PTFE spheres varies as well. The optical throughput of a PTFE GPS is high because to its high reflectivity and diffusivity, hence extra care must be taken while selecting port attachments and fixtures.

Sphere Port Sizes and Locations

When selecting a sphere for the specified applications, port size and location on an integrating sphere are critical considerations. A sphere port improves the usefulness of an integrating sphere while decreasing the uniformity of the light dispersion inside the sphere. The port fraction is the ratio of the entire port area to the area of a GPS’s internal wall. The port fraction parameter is a measure of the precision of the sphere. An integrating sphere with a low port fraction outperforms a sphere with a large port fraction.

Each port on an integrating sphere serves a specific purpose, and incorrect use of any port will result in faulty measurement results. The port positions are denoted by the numbers 0°, 90°, 180°, and the north pole. All Sphere apertures are machined into the outer hemispherical shell at 90-degree intervals. The dimensions of each port are determined by the GPS’s size and series. The functions of each GPS port are predetermined throughout the sphere design process. Some ports have a single function, whereas others have numerous functions. All integrating spheres in the GPS Series can be utilized for uniform source and light measuring applications. The 4-port integrating spheres can measure diffuse reflectance and transmittance.

Fiber Optic Power Output Measurement

An integrating sphere is also perfect for assessing optical fiber output. The first reflection spot on the opposite side of the source is not strongly concentrated. That happens due to the usual slow divergence of optical fibers. As a result, either the collimated beam arrangement or the divergent beam configuration is frequently sufficient. However, because to the increased NA of the fiber the diverging beam structure is suggested in the case of lensed fiber. The collimated beam arrangement is preferable when employing a fiber collimator.

Lisun Instruments Limited was found by LISUN GROUP in 2003. LISUN quality system has been strictly certified by ISO9001:2015. As a CIE Membership, LISUN products are designed based on CIE, IEC and other international or national standards. All products passed CE certificate and authenticated by the third party lab.

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